Censorship
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Argentina 馃嚘馃嚪 is a South American country that practices Christianity.

General censorship[]

One year after Revoluci贸n Libertadora in 1956, which ousted the previous president Juan Domingo Peron, any depiction or promotion of Peronism as well as any mention (on press for insance), depiction, photograph, portrait of former President Peron (who back then, fled to Spain) or his wife Evita, was forbidden under Decree Law 4161/56. The ousted Peron was either referred as "the monster" by President Pedro Eugenio Aramburu or as "the fugitive tyrant" by newspapers.

Book censorship[]

  • T铆a Vicenta - This satirical magazine was banned in 1966, for mocking the then president, General Juan Carlos Ongan铆a, who took power by coup in that year, by depicting him as a walrus (in reference to a nickname, "la morsa" -meaning "the walrus"- , which was given by his Argentine Armed Forces colleagues to the laconic and mustachioed General).
  • Primera Plana - This literary and political weekly, which supported the liberal wing of the Argentine Armed Forces, was briefly banned in 4 August 1969 due to a decree prohibiting its circulation, before getting de-banned and ceasing publication in 1973.
  • Lolita (1955) - This novel written by Vladimir Nabokov was banned for being "obscene".
  • Un elefante ocupa mucho espacio - this children's book written by Elsa Bornemann, which talks about a circus elephant who mobilizes the other circus animals living with him to organize a strike to protest against their captivitiy at the hands of humans, was censored and banned in Argentina due to the military regime ruling the country at the time (1976-1983) deeming it "as stories for younger audiences with the purpose of preparatory ideological brainwashing for subversive actions".

Internet censorship[]

Argentina is not individually classified by the OpenNet Initiative, but is included in the ONI regional overview for Latin America.

The regulation of internet content addresses largely the same concerns and strategies seen in North America and Europe, focusing on combating the spread of child pornography and restricting child access to age-inappropriate material. As internet usage in Argentina increases, so do defamation, hate speech, copyright, and privacy issues.

Argentina has strengthened intellectual property rights protections by drafting and updating laws and ratifying international agreements such as the WIPO Copyright Treaty.

Since the 1997 presidential declaration regarding "free speech on the internet" that guarantees internet content the same constitutional protections for freedom of expression, Argentina has become a haven for neo-nazi and race-hate groups around the region. In 2000 an Argentine appellate court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of a claim that a Yahoo! site selling nazi memorabilia violated Argentina's anti-discrimination law (no. 23.592), holding that the equivalent restrictions of non-internet speech would be unacceptable. Under Argentina's anti-discrimination law a crime is aggravated if racism is involved.

The defendant in the 2006 case Jujuy.com v. Omar Lozano was found liable for publishing slanderous content on his Web site after imputing adulterous conduct to a couple and failing to remove the content promptly. An injunction was imposed and damages were set at $40,000 (USD).

Prosecutors and police pursue cases of internet child pornography. In June 2008 the Congress passed a law criminalizing child pornography; however, the law does not penalize possession by individuals for personal use.

In 2010 an appeals court overturned a lower-court ruling that found Google and Yahoo liable for defamation for including sex-related Web sites in their search results for an Argentine entertainer. The appeals court ruling said the firms could be held liable for defamation only if they were made aware of clearly illegal content and were negligent in removing it.

In August 2011 a judge ordered all ISPs to block the site LeakyMails, a Web site that obtains and publishes documents exposing corruption in Argentina. In response some internet service providers blocked the website IP address 216.239.32.2 which is linked to more than one million blogs hosted on Google's Blogger service disrupting the access to all of them.

In November 2012 the CNC (Spanish: Comision Nacional De Comunicaciones) ordered the blocking of websites that contained information about bootloader unlocking of netbooks supplied by the Argentine Government. The legality of these actions in Argentina remains controversial.

In July 2014 the CNC (Spanish: Comision Nacional De Comunicaciones) ordered local ISPs to block The Pirate Bay due an injunction of CAPIF (Spanish: C谩mara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas) against the popular Torrent index. CAPIF is an Argentine music industry group and a member of International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). The CNC is an agency of the Argentine Government created to certify wireless devices; to regulate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, cable and postal services. In retaliation for the blocking, the online site of CAPIF was hacked and turned into a Pirate Bay Proxy server.

As of 2017, any and all websites previously blocked are no longer blocked due to public criticism and lack of interest.

Movie censorship[]

In Argentina, films are rated by the National Institute of Cinema and Audiovisual Arts (INCAA) through its Advisory Commission of Cinematographic Exhibition (Comisi贸n Asesora de Exhibici贸n Cinematogr谩fica)issues ratings for films based on the following categories:

  • ATP: For all public.
  • +13: Suitable for 13-year-olds and over. Children under the age of 13 are admitted if accompanied by an adult.
  • +16: Suitable for 16-year-olds and over.
  • +18: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over.
  • C: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over. Restricted to specially licensed venues.

Instances of Movie censorship[]

  • Los afincaos - this 1941 dramatic film had a disclaimer stating that "the film did not took place in Argentina" under the pressure of the censors.
  • I'll Never Heil Again - banned during the conservative period of authoritarian governments known as "Infamous Decade" (1930鈥1943), for lampooning Nazi Germany, even if Argentina had declared itself neutral during World War Two.
  • La mujer m谩s honesta del mundo - this comedy film had its screening forbidden in Buenos Aires by the Municipal Censorship Commission due to the conservative public criticising it as "apology for inmorality". As a result, the film could be only screeneed in an ephemeral and circumstantial way in some points of the interior of the country.
  • La Tigra - this film, based on the work of the same name written by Florencio S谩nchez about the encounter of a woman known as "the Tigress" and a student of fine arts, was banned by the administrative authority after rating it as "not suitable for ages under 18", alleging "low quality" and and covert moralism, excluded the film from the regime of compulsory screening with which the domestic film industry was protected. It was shown edited in Canal 9 S谩bados circulares show on 17 March 1962 and debuted commercially in an edited form on 10 September 1964. After 30 years when the film was thought to be lost, a copy from a Santa Fe film archive was found, being screened on Cine Club N煤cleo in 1994[1].
  • The Silence - banned for "obscenity".
  • Ufa con el sexo - this comedy film was banned in 1968, during the rule of Juan Carlos Ongania, for being as "violating morality standards" it was only from 2007 that the film would be shown in the country[2].
  • M茅xico, la revoluci贸n congelada - this documentary was banned by the Argentinian embassador of Mexico, at behest of the President of Mexico Luis Echeverria, who warned that the film was a fierce criticism of a betrayed ideal rather than a praise of the "revoliution made institution".
  • Valle f茅rtil - this documentary film did not saw a commercial debut and was banned in the Valle F茅rtil Department by the de facto comptroller Luis Mart铆nez, who supposed that it was due to the comment on Revista Clar铆n magazine titled "Valle F茅rtil: un pueblo que se extingue" (Valle Fertil: A people in extinction")[3]. The film would later be screened in 2014.
  • Los Neur贸ticos - this film about a psychanalist whose only goal is to impress the women who attend his group therapies, which was originally shot in 1969, was banned by the classification board, which was in charge of censoring films. The film underwent several cuts to submit it again in order to receive classification, but in September, the censors mantained their decision. After several cuts and a new ratification in October, the film was finally authorized to be released in November 1971.
  • Last Tango in Paris - banned during the self-styled "Argentine Revolution" military regime (1966鈥1973), for being "pornographic."
  • Las Venganzas de Beto S谩nchez - this drama about a man who swears revenge for anyone who made his life go wrong after his father's death was considered as "totally negative" by the Argentine Episcopal Commission for the Social Communications Media on 13 Abril 1973. The General Staff of the Argentine Army stated in a 10 April 1973 note that said film "was against the vigent cultural values and guidelines", requesting the suppression of the incident referred to an army officer and the Secretariat of Intelligence (SIDE) estimated that it did not correspond that it was in the regime of State grants. Said polemic determined that the film's release was "on hold" the replacement of the military government by the constitutional authorities on 25 May 1973, when H茅ctor Jos茅 C谩mpora swore in as the newly-elected president.
  • Secuestro y muerte de Mr. Dupont - this drama film was not authorized to be screened by the military government and never had a commercial premiere.
  • La Patagonia Rebelde - this historical film about the suppression of a peasants' revolt, known as "Tragic Patagonia was banned under Isabel Per贸n's government (1974鈥1976) and Jorge Rafael Videla's National Reorganization Process regime during Argentina's last-civil military government (1976鈥1983).
  • Last Days of Mussolini - banned under Videla's regime during Argentina's last-civil military government (1976鈥1983).
  • The Great Dictator - banned under Videla's regime during Argentina's last-civil military government for mocking dictatorships.
  • Las largas vacaciones del '36 - banned under Videla's regime during Argentina's last-civil military government for its sarcastic view of Spain under Francisco Franco.
  • Looking for Mr. Goodbar - Banned under Videla's regime during Argentina's last-civil military government, for being "pornographic".
  • Hail Mary - this movie, which is a modern retelling of the Virgin Birth, was banned for mixing sexual content with religious content. Argentina's large Catholic population in particular considered this sort of thing blasphemous.
  • The Last Temptation of Christ - this movie was banned in Argentina on grounds of "blasphemy".
  • Kindergarten - this movie was banned for its controversial themes, school shooting, scenes of nudity and unsimulated oral sex. Any copy of the movie was seized and its ban on its exhibition was enacted, both due to a court order. In 2010, the movie was shown in a restored copy, as part of the Mar del Plata International Film Festival.
  • Borrando a pap谩 - this documentary about six fathers estranged from their children after conflictive divorces and hardships to keep their bonds with their children was scheduled to be premiered in 2014, but due to a court measure, it could not be comercially premiered and thus, was uploaded on YouTube[4][5].

Television censorship[]

  • The Simpsons - The Season 19 episode "E Pluribus Wiggum", although nominally about Ralph Wiggum being written in as a candidate for U.S. President, was temporarily banned in Argentina for a side conversation that made fun of Argentina. Specifically, Lenny and Carl call Juan Peron the country's best leader because "when he 'disappeared' you, you stayed 'disappeared'!" and equate Peron's wife Evita with the singer Madonna (who did play her in a film adaptation of the musical Evita). Many other Latin American countries followed suit, taking it as a mockery of their culture as a whole. This kind of thing never stopped The Simpsons from being aired there, though.

Video game censorship[]

  • Carmageddon - this game was banned in the city of Buenos Aires due to its depiction of people being killed by motor vehicles.
  • RapeLay - this game was banned as it is seen to condone or glamorize sexual violence.

External links[]

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